Iran has conducted combat operations beyond its borders with conventional, as well as advisory forces, in Iraq and Syria since 2015. We’ve observed this development by tracking Iranian troop rotations in Farsi and Arabic media, and on social media. Iran used to rely on proxies is guided by the clandestine Quds Force. It hasn’t sent the conventional Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps beyond its borders since the nineteen eighties. Its regular military, the Artesh, has never fought abroad. That’s changed. Parts of IRGC brigades have fought in Syria alongside Hezbollah and Iraqi militias. Artesh units are fighting in Syria. Even the internal- security-come-morality-police- organization, called the Basij, has sent combat units to Syria. Iran is creating the ability to lead and fight with a coalition of tens of thousands of proxy forces, hundreds of miles from its borders, for the first time in its history, and its asking Russia to sell it advanced aircraft, tanks, and anti-shipping missiles that would give it one of the region’s most powerful militaries. The US must take determined – but not hasty – action to address this new challenge from an old adversary. If you liked this video, check out CriticalThreats.org for more coverage on the challenges facing the United States abroad. We track threats from al-Qaeda to Iran. Also, let us know what other topics you’d like AEI scholars to cover in 60 seconds.